Piping plays a central role in many industrial processes in chemical or petrochemical installations such as power plants, as it connects core components such as appliances, columns, vessels, boilers, turbines etc. with one another and facilitates the flow of materials and energy.
The availability of raw materials, fuels and the storage of end products is critical in almost all fields of industry. Generally, large tanks are used for raw materials, fuels and end products. Small tanks or vessels are used to temporarily store (semi) products. To conserve the substance and ensure the stability and safety of the production process, it is important to keep the temperature inside the tank between certain temperature limits.
Columns are pillar-shaped vessels, which are mainly used in the (petro) chemical industry for distillation or the extraction of substances. They often form the key elements in chemical or petrochemical plants. The processes in columns often only operate at certain temperatures.
Vessels are a major component in installations for various procedures in almost all fields of industry. Many production processes require different substances that are stored in vessels and used in the individual processes later in the procedure. The vessels primarily store liquid, solid or gaseous substances, which are added to the process as and when required. Raw materials, fuels or end products are usually stored in large storage tanks.
Burning fossil fuels produce flue gases, which are guided through chimneys through the various cleaning stages, such as denitrification,(DENOX), de sulfurization (DESOX) and dust removal, before being discharged into the atmosphere.
Hot water boilers and boilers for the production of water vapour under high pressures are considered to be steam boilers. As a generic term, boiler is used to denote steam generators and hot water installations. In the industry there are two types of boilers; the steam engine boilers and fire tube boilers.
Many industrial applications use gases such as oxygen, nitrogen and argon. These gases are obtained using cryogenic gas separation technology, whereby air is condensed and converted into a liquid. Afterwards, the various elements can be separated using fractional distillation. So-called air separation plants are characterised by an extremely low temperature of as low as approximately -200°C.